Conifers are little wonders

Why do coniferous trees not lose their needles? And how do they survive the winter when the water freezes and cannot be absorbed by the roots? Here are the answers.
Do you know why in the well-known Christmas carol «O Christmas Tree» it is said: «our branches green delight us»?

Well, conifers have been around for more than 200 million years, a time when it was extremely hot all over the world.

The ancestors of our conifers only survived because they are so-called xerophytes, plants adapted to drought.
In fact, needles are tightly rolled leaves. And like them, they are responsible for photosynthesis and therefore for the «transformation of nutrients» for the tree.

During this process, in addition to the oxygen released, a large amount of aqueous vapor escapes from the stomata of the leaves (or needles). As the surface area of the needles is much smaller than that of the leaves, transpiration is reduced.

On their underside, the needles also have special «stoma cells» which are buried in a small cave and slow down the evaporation of water even more.
Not to forget that the needles have a firm epidermis, often with a layer of wax as well.

When water freezes in winter and cannot be absorbed by the roots, this layer prevents the trees from drying out and the needles from falling off.

So, the fir tree is a little wonder even without decoration!

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